Urban Economics > References > 2009

References > 2009

  •   Trullén, J. (2009):National industrial policies and the development of industrial districts: reflection on the Spanish case”, in Becattini, G., Bellandi, M. and De Propris, L. (ed.) A Handbook of Industrial Districts. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

    Abstract: The notion of Marshallian industrial district will prove useful both in guiding a significant part of the new industrial strategy being implemented by the new General Office of Industry, and in defining specific elements of industrial policy: the programme known as “Innovative Business Groupings” (IBG) instigated by the General Policy Office for Small and Medium-sized Companies (Dirección General de Política de la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa -DGPYME) and the programme for financing of technological development in cooperation projects for IBGs and clusters (the Technological Research and Development Fund), run via a state agency, the Centre for Industrial Technological Development (CITD). The Spanish experience of industrial policy on a national level based on MIDs focuses on the support for innovative processes that require cooperation between companies and other parties involved in R&D, such as technology centres and universities. It does not envisage dealing with all the external economies but only those that are directly related to technological research and development. It is aimed at financing technological development projects in industrial districts or innovation clusters. It is a centrally run policy that is “bottom up” in nature: i.e. the initial impulse must come from the agents located within the territory, with the collaboration of the autonomous government authorities or local authorities.

  • Boix, R. (2009): The empirical evidence of industrial districts in Spain”, in Becattini, G., Bellandi, M. and De Propris, L. (ed.) A Handbook of Industrial Districts. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

    Abstract: Looking for new instruments for the industrial policy, the Ministry of Industry decided to consider the elaboration of the first map of Marshallian industrial districts of Spain (Boix and Galletto 2006), which was carried out using the Italian Sforzi-ISTAT (1997) methodology. For the first time, the map allowed to quantify Marshallian industrial districts and to show that they were a widespread reality in Spain and that their quantitative importance was similar to Italy. In fact, this result was only to be expected since the two countries have similar territorial, social and productive structures. Furthermore, Spain and Italy (jointly with Portugal) are the only European countries where the average of large firms on total manufacturing firms is below 0.5%, and their contribution to the total manufacturing employment is less than 30%. Since manufacturing production continues to be successful in these countries (and not only in costs), models of production organization alternative to large and integrated firms were largely expected. The Marshallian industrial district proved to be one of the most important.

  • Boix, R. and Galletto, V. (2009)
    Innovation and Industrial Districts: A First Approach to the Measurement and Determinants of the I-District Effect”, Regional Studies,
    Vol.43 Issue 9, p. 1117-1133. ISSN 0034-3404.

    Abstract: Innovation and industrial districts: a first approach to the measurement and determinants of the I-district effect, Regional Studies. The paper analyses an exhaustive database of patents granted in Spain between 2001 and 2006 aggregated in a panel of 806 local labour markets classified by seven typologies of local production systems. The analysis shows that Marshallian industrial districts generate 30% of Spanish patents and an innovative output per capita that is 47% above the national average and 31% larger than the manufacturing production systems of large firms. The econometric estimates of a fixed-effects model confirm the existence of an innovation-district (I-district) effect and its size. The I-district effect is mainly related to the presence of Marshallian localization economies.

  • Boix, R. (2009):
    Catalonia. Report for the DG Regio Project - Politecnico di Milano.

  • Lazzeretti, L. and Capone, F. (2009):
    Industrial district effects and innovation in the Tuscan shipbuilding industry”, IERMB Working Paper in Economics, nº 09.03, May 2009.

    Abstract: The aim of the present work is to investigate innovative processes within a geographical cluster, and thus contribute to the debate on the effects of industrial clusters on innovation capacity. In particular, we would like to ascertain whether the advantages of industrial districts in promoting innovation, as already revealed by literature (diffusion of knowledge, social capital and trust, efficient networking), are also keys to success in the Tuscan shipbuilding industry of pleasure and sporting boats. First, we verify the existence of clusters of shipbuilding in Tuscany, using a specific methodology. Next, in the identified clusters, we analyse three innovative networks financed in a policy to support innovation, and examine whether the typical features of a cluster for promoting innovation are at work, using a questionnaire administered to 71 actors. Finally, we develop a performance analysis of the cluster firms and ascertain whether their different behaviours also lead to different performances. The analysis results show that our case records effects of industrial clustering on innovation capacity, such as the important role given to trust and social capital, the significant worth put in interfirm relations and in each partner’s specific competencies, or even the distinctive performance of firms belonging to a cluster.

  • Lazzeretti, L. Boix, R. and Capone, F. (2009):
    Why do creative industries cluster? An analysis of the determinants of clustering of creative industries”, IERMB Working Paper in Economics, nº 09.02, April 2009.

    Abstract: Creative industries tend to concentrate mainly around large- and medium-sized cities, forming creative local production systems. The text analyses the forces behind clustering of creative industries to provide the first empirical explanation of the determinants of creative employment clustering following a multidisciplinary approach based on cultural and creative economics, evolutionary geography and urban economics. A comparative analysis has been performed for Italy and Spain. The results show different patterns of creative employment clustering in both countries. The small role of historical and cultural endowments, the size of the place, the average size of creative industries, the productive diversity and the concentration of human capital and creative class have been found as common factors of clustering in both countries

  • Boix, R. and Veneri, P. (2009):
    Metropolitan areas in Spain and Italy”, IERMB Working Paper in Economics, nº 09.01, March 2009.

    Abstract: Metropolitan areas concentrate the main share of population, production and consumption in OECD countries. They are likely to be the most important units for economic, social and environmental analysis as well as for the development of policy strategies. However, one of the main problems that occur when adopting metropolitan areas as units of analysis and policy in European countries is the absence of widely accepted standards for identifying them. This severe problem appeared when we tried to perform comparative research between Spain and Italy using metropolitan areas as units of analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify metropolitan areas in Spain and Italy using similar methodologies. The results allow comparing the metropolitan realities of both countries as well as providing the metropolitan units that can be used in subsequent comparative researches. Two methodologies are proposed: the Cheshire-GEMACA methodology (FUR) and an iterative version of the USA-MSA algorithm, particularly adapted to deal with polycentric metropolitan areas (DMA). Both methods show a good approximation to the metropolitan reality and produce very similar results: 75 FUR and 67 DMA in Spain (75% of total population and employment), and 81 FUR and 86 DMA in Italy (70% of total population and employment).

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